Jaques de Vitry
crowd the emblem of Redemption. "Let the Cross," he said, "glitter on your arms and on your standards! Bear it on your shoulders and on your breasts; it will become for you the emblem of victory or the palm of martyrdom; it will ever remind you that Jesus Christ died for you, and that it is your part to die for them." /3 All crusaders swore to dedicate their lives to avenge the outrages inflicted on Christ and his followers.
Crusaders is a title bestowed on the faithful who enrolled themselves under Christ's banner, and also, that of Crusade, the name given to the holy war.
"In 1181 the third Crusade was undertaken and Philip Augustus, the King of France, and Richard, the King of England, whose great deeds in this holy war obtained for him the surname of Coeur de Lion, forgetting their own personal quarrels put themselves at its head. Frederick Barbarosa, the Emperor of Germany, joined the undertaking."
After an immense blood shedding experience, and a reduction of the Christian armies by more than half, they returned, bringing with them "moult de gloure", (much glory) but without having in reality, obtained any material or lasting advantage over the unbelievers who still retained possession of Jerusalem. A11 in all, there were eight Crusades.
"The effect of the Crusades was nevertheless a complete revolution in the manners and customs of the Western nations; the suppression of servitude, the founding of the free towns, the alienation and the division of the feudal lands, and the development of the communal systems, were the immediate consequences of the tremendous emigration of men who went forth to fight and die in Palestine. The nobles ceased to wage their perpetual private quarrels, knighthood assumed a regular and solemn character. Judiciary duels diminished, religious orders multiplied and charitable institutions were established on every side. Mens minds became more enlightened and their manners softened under the influence of the growing expansion of science, art and literature; law, natural history, philosophy, and mathematics came to them in direct descent poetic gems spring up all at once from the imagination of troubadours, minstrels, and minnesingers. Art, the fine arts particularly, architecture, painting, sculpture, and embroidery began to unfold their thousand wonders. Industry and commerce multiplied a hundred-fold. The public wealth, which at one time had seemed nearly swallowed up in ruinous expeditions, and the art of war, as well as the art of navigation, made immense strides in the direction of progress." /4
/1 Burke, General Armory, England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales
/2-4 LaCroix, Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages